Attractions in Jerusalem

The historical city of Jerusalem is surrounded by beautiful mountains, nature and landmarks, all of its cherished visitors are invited to explore its walls, monuments and shrines, the following are some of the attractions of Jerusalem that welcomes all of its guests.

The Mount of Olives or Mount Olivet

The Mount of Olives or Mount Olivet (Hebrew: הַר הַזֵּיתִים, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: جبل الزيتون, الطور‎, Jabal az-Zaytūn, Aț-Țūr) is a mountain ridge east of and adjacent to the Jerusalem's Old City.
It is named for the olive groves that once covered its slopes. The southern part of the Mount was the necropolis of the ancient Judean kingdom.
The Mount has been used as a Jewish cemetery for over 3,000 years, and holds approximately 150,000 graves, making it central in the tradition of Jewish cemeteries. Several key events in the life of Jesus as related in the Gospels took place on the Mount of Olives, and in the Book of Acts it is described as the place from which Jesus ascended to heaven.
Because of its association with both Jesus and Mary, the Mount has been a site of Christian worship since ancient times and is today a major site of Christian pilgrimage for Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant Christians.

The Old City

The Old City (Hebrew: העיר העתיקה‎, Ha'Ir Ha'Atiqah, Arabic: البلدة القديمة‎, al-Balda al-Qadimah, Armenian: Հին Քաղաք, Hin K'aghak' ) is a 0.9 square kilometers (0.35 sq mi) walled area within the modern city of Jerusalem.
Until 1860, when the Jewish neighborhood Mishkenot Sha'ananim was established, this area constituted the entire city of Jerusalem. The Old City is home to several sites of key religious importance: the Temple Mount and Western Wall for Jews, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre for Christians, and the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque for Muslims.
It was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site List in 1981. The current population of the Old City resides mostly in the Islamic and Christian quarters.
As of 2007 the total population was 36,965 (26,544 in the Muslim quarter, 5442 in the Christian, 2555 in the Jewish, and 2424 in the Armenian quarter).

Traditionally, the Old City has been divided into four uneven quarters, although the current designations were introduced only in the 19th century.
Today, the Old City is roughly divided into the Muslim Quarter, the Christian Quarter, the Jewish Quarter and the Armenian Quarter.
Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Old City was captured by Jordan and Jewish residents were evicted.
During the Six-Day War in 1967, which saw hand-to-hand fighting on the Temple Mount, Israel captured the Old City along with the rest of East Jerusalem, subsequently annexing them as Israeli territory and reuniting them with the western part of the city.
Today, Israel controls the entire area, which it considers part of its national capital. In 2010, Jerusalem's oldest fragment of writing was found outside the Old City's walls.
The Jerusalem Law of 1980, effectively annexing East Jerusalem to Israel, was declared null and void by UN Security Council Resolution 478 and East Jerusalem is regarded by the international community as part of occupied Palestinian territory.

The Walls of Jerusalem

The Walls of Jerusalem (Arabic: أسوار القدس‎; Hebrew: חומות ירושלים‎) surround the old city of Jerusalem (approx. 1 km²). The walls were built between 1535 and 1538, when Jerusalem was part of the Ottoman Empire, by the order of Suleiman I.

The length of the walls is 4,018 meters (2.4966 mi), their average height is 12 meters (39.37 feet) and the average thickness is 2.5 meters (8.2 feet). The walls contain 34 watchtowers and 8 gates.

In 1981, The Jerusalem walls were added, along with the Old City of Jerusalem, to the UNESCO World Heritage Site List.

The walls of Jerusalem, which were built originally to protect the borders of the city against intrusions, mainly serve as an attraction for tourists since they ceased to serve as a means of protection for the city.

English Hebrew Arabic Alt Names Construction Year Location
New Gate HaSha'ar HeHadash (השער החדש) Al-Bab al-Jedid (الباب الجديد) Gate of Hammid 1887 West of northern side
Damascus Gate Sha'ar Shkhem (שער שכם) Bab al-Amoud (باب العمود) Sha'ar Damesek, Nablus Gate, Gate of the Pillar 1537 Middle of northern side
Herod's Gate Sha'ar HaPerachim (שער הפרחים) Bab al-Sahira (باب الساهرة) Sha'ar Hordos, Flower Gate, Sheep Gate unknown East of northern side
Lions' Gate Sha'ar HaArayot (שער האריות) Bab al-Asbatt (باب الأسباط) /Bab Sittna Maryam Gate of Yehoshafat, St. Stephen's Gate, Gate of the Tribes 1538-39 North of eastern side
Dung Gate Sha'ar HaAshpot (שער האשפות) Bab al-Maghariba (باب المغاربة) Gate of Silwan, Sha'ar HaMugrabim 1538-40 East of southern side
Zion Gate Sha'ar Tzion (שער ציון) Bab El-Nabi Da'oud (باب النبي داود) Gate to the Jewish Quarter 1540 Middle of southern side
Jaffa Gate Sha'ar Yaffo (שער יפו) Bab al-Khalil (باب الخليل) The Gate of David's Prayer Shrine, Porta Davidi 1530-40 Middle of western side

Sealed gates

English Hebrew Arabic Alt Names Construction Year Location
Golden Gate Sha'ar HaRahamim (שער הרחמים) Bab al-Rahma (باب الرحمة) Gate of Mercy, the Gate of Eternal Life. Sealed in 1541. 6th century Middle of eastern side
Single Gate This gate led to the underground area of the Temple Mount known as Solomon's Stables Herodian period Southern wall of Temple Mount
Double Gate Herodian period Southern wall of Temple Mount
Huldah Gates Also known as the Triple Gate, as it comprises three arches Herodian period Southern wall of Temple Mount

The Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church of the Holy Sepulcher, also called the Basilica of the Holy Sepulcher, or the Church of the Resurrection by Eastern Christians, is a church within the Christian Quarter of the walled Old City of Jerusalem. It is a few steps away from the Muristan.

The site is venerated as Golgotha (the Hill of Calvary), where Jesus of Nazareth was crucified, and is said also to contain the place where Jesus was buried (the Sepulcher). The church has been a paramount – and for many Christians the most important - pilgrimage destination since at least the 4th century, as the purported site of the resurrection of Jesus.
Today it also serves as the headquarters of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, while control of the building is shared between several Christian churches and secular entities in complicated arrangements essentially unchanged for centuries.
Today, the church is home to branches of Eastern Orthodoxy and Oriental Orthodoxy as well as to Roman Catholicism. Anglican and Protestant Christians have no permanent presence in the Church - and some have regarded the alternative Garden Tomb, elsewhere in Jerusalem, as the true place of Jesus's crucifixion and resurrection.

Al-Aqsa Mosque

Al-Aqsa Mosque (Arabic: المسجد الاقصى al-Masjid al-Aqṣā,”the Farthest Mosque") also known as Al-Aqsa and Bayt al-Muqaddas, is the third holiest site in Islam and is located in the Old City of Jerusalem. The site on which the silver domed mosque sits, along with the Dome of the Rock, also referred to as al-Haram ash-Sharif or "Noble Sanctuary," is the Temple Mount, the holiest site in Judaism, the place where the Temple is generally accepted to have stood. Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Sacred Mosque in Mecca to al-Aqsa during the Night Journey. Islamic tradition holds that Muhammad led prayers towards this site until the seventeenth month after the emigration, when God directed him to turn towards the Kaaba.

The mosque was originally a small prayer house built by the Rashidun caliph Umar, but was rebuilt and expanded by the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik and finished by his son al-Walid in 705 CE. After an earthquake in 746, the mosque was completely destroyed and rebuilt by the Abbasidcaliph al-Mansur in 754, and again rebuilt by his successor al-Mahdi in 780. Another earthquake destroyed most of al-Aqsa in 1033, but two years later the Fatimid caliph Ali az-Zahir built another mosque which has stood to the present-day. During the periodic renovations undertaken, the various ruling dynasties of the Islamic Caliphate constructed additions to the mosque and its precincts, such as its dome, facade, its minbar, minarets and the interior structure. When the Crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099, they used the mosque as a palace and church, but its function as a mosque was restored after its recapture by Saladin in 1187. More renovations, repairs and additions were undertaken in the later centuries by the Ayyubids, Mamluks,Ottomans, the Supreme Muslim Council, and Jordan. Today, the Old City is under Israeli control, but the mosque remains under the administration of the Jordanian/Palestinian-led Islamic waqf.

Mount Scopus

Mount Scopus (Hebrew הַר הַצּוֹפִים (Har HaTsofim), Arabic: جبل المشارف‎,Ǧabal al-Mašārif, lit. "Mount Lookout"), جبل المشهد Ǧabal al-Mašhad, جبل الصوانة) is a mountain (elevation: 2710 feet or 826 meters above sea level) in northeast Jerusalem. In the wake of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Mount Scopus became a UN protected Israeli exclave within Jordanian-administered territory until the Six-Day War in 1967. Today, Mount Scopus lies within the municipal boundaries of the city of Jerusalem.

Landmarks in Mount Scopus are Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hecht Synagogue Hebrew University, Bezalel Academy of Art and Design, National Botanical Garden, Jerusalem British War Cemetery, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem American Colony Cemetery, Kiryat Menachem also known as Kiryat Hamemshala, Brigham Young University (Mormon University), Cave of Nicanor and Augusta Victoria Hospital.

West Jerusalem

West Jerusalem or Western Jerusalem refers to the section of Jerusalem that remained under Israeli control after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, whose ceasefire lines delimited the boundary with the rest of the city, which was then under Jordanian control. A number of western countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States acknowledged de facto Israeli authority, but withheld de jure recognition.

All the aforesaid parts and texts are extorted from WIKIPEDIA.

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